Sinaki emphasizes the need for stimulation of bone within bone’s biomechanical competence. She reiterates that compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious and that the absence pain is not a good indicator that fracture has not occurred. Exercise is an important part of management of osteoporosis and is associated with improved quality of life and decreased risk of fracture. Exercise programs need to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness and should be individualized and interesting to the patient/client! She recommends axial strength and stability, and spinal extensor strengthening progressed with resistance. A good exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strengthening. She also states that oral Vitamin D and Calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strength exercises.
Overall, Sinaki states, a good exercise program should aim to:
- improve back extensor strength
- increase level of physical activity
- improve locomotion
- reduce back pain
- reduce fear
- reduce risk of falls